Welcome!

This website aims to tell you nearly everything you need (and may ever want) to know about convergent evolution. It allows you to explore the way that similar adaptive solutions have repeatedly evolved from unrelated starting points, as though following a metaphorical ‘map’.


We have identified hundreds of examples of convergence, so if you want to learn about convergence in sex (e.g. love-darts), eyes (e.g. camera-eyes in jellyfish), agriculture (e.g. in ants) or gliding (e.g. in lizards and mammals) then this is your best port of call.

Any of the information presented in the Map of Life may be freely reproduced, as long as it is acknowledged fully. Citation details can be found at the bottom of each Topic, in the format: Map of Life – “Topic title”, Topic web page address, Month/Year downloaded

Read more about the project...

Tree-dwelling (‘arboreal’) ants capable of controlled gliding do so when dislodged or threatened by predation. Gliding species include members of three disparate families: Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmecinae and Formicinae.

Spotlight on Research:

“Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution”

G. Jones & M.W. Holderied 2007, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, volume 274, pages 905-921.

The echolocation calls of bats are extremely plastic and diverse. As they are used to probe the environment, call design is largely shaped by the bat’s ecology. Thus, distantly related species foraging in similar habitats have independently evolved very similar calls, representing excellent examples of convergence. This review summarises evidence for the repeated evolution of particular signal types in several lineages of bats.